Capital Expenditure Slowdown: Federal Reserve Rate Hikes Impact Companies

Federal Reserve

In the ever-evolving landscape of the economy, even seemingly subtle shifts can have profound impacts on businesses. A recent survey conducted by the Atlanta Federal Reserve sheds light on a concerning trend that has caught the attention of entrepreneurs and investors alike. The survey highlights how the pulse of the business world is beating in response to interest rate adjustments set forth by the Federal Reserve.

Main Points

  • Inflation's effects on businesses are diverse and complex, influencing capital expenditures for over half of surveyed companies. The impact varies, prompting unique strategies.
  • Eleven rate hikes since March 2022 propelled interest rates to a twelve-year high. This surge alters borrowing dynamics, urging businesses to reassess investments and spending.
  • As interest rates influence labor and capital decisions, businesses showcase adaptability. Hiring and investment adjustments highlight the delicate balance between growth and fiscal caution.
  • The survey underscores the transformative influence of interest rates on business decisions, molding their paths in an evolving economic landscape.

Business Inflation Expectations Survey

The Atlanta Federal Reserve's Business Inflation Expectations survey, a comprehensive study encompassing Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and parts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee, aims to delve into the year-ahead inflation expectations of businesses. This insightful survey reveals that businesses across the region have encountered inflation's effects in diverse ways and magnitudes, which has led to a cascade of consequential decisions.

Notably, more than half of the businesses participating in the survey have experienced a significant impact on their capital expenditures. These expenditures, which fuel growth, innovation, and expansion, have been notably curtailed due to the ongoing wave of inflation. Consequently, a discernible trend has emerged where businesses are reevaluating their investment strategies in the face of the current economic conditions.

The Intersection of Interest Rates and Business Decisions

One of the most striking revelations of the survey is the powerful correlation between interest rates and businesses' strategic decisions. The year 2022 has witnessed the Federal Reserve's decision to implement eleven rate hikes, culminating in interest rates reaching their highest point in twelve years. This move has had a cascading effect, influencing the interest rates associated with a wide array of loans.

As the interest rates scaled higher, borrowing became a more complex endeavor. With the cost of borrowing elevated, businesses began to rethink their investment trajectories. The very essence of supply and demand was thrown into a delicate balance, with spending waning in an effort to establish equilibrium. This economic phenomenon is an intricate dance between borrowers and lenders, echoing through the corridors of businesses as they adapt to this new rhythm.

How do current interest rate levels impact your firm's capital expenditure decisions?
The Atlanta Federal Reserve asked businesses in its region how much interest rates have impacted business decisions like hiring and investment back into the company. (To see a specific data point, tap or hover over that area of the chart.)

Businesses Responding to the Rates

The current economic landscape has pushed businesses to reassess their capital expenditure strategies, focusing on how they can weather this inflationary storm. The August survey results indicate that a significant 80% of businesses acknowledged the palpable impact of interest rates on their capital expenditures.

Delving deeper into the intricacies of these decisions, the survey sought to understand the tangible steps businesses were taking in response to the elevated interest rates. Among the businesses affected, 43% made the difficult choice of either halting or reducing their capital expenditures. This strategic pivot showcases the substantial role that interest rates are playing in shaping the financial trajectory of these companies.

Moreover, the influence of interest rates extends to credit utilization. A notable 30% of businesses reported accessing credit less frequently, a move driven by the desire to navigate the interest rate dynamics. Additionally, 13% of businesses decided to curtail research and development efforts, demonstrating that the ripples of interest rate fluctuations are far-reaching.

Labor Implications in the Wake of Interest Rate Hikes
While the survey highlights a substantial impact on capital expenditures, the labor sector is not immune to the influence of these interest rate adjustments. Approximately 57% of businesses reported that their hiring practices had been influenced by the elevated interest rates. The scope of these changes varied, shedding light on the multifaceted ways businesses were adjusting their workforce strategies.

Of those affected, the majority—45%—opted to slow down the pace at which they were onboarding new employees. This calculated approach allows businesses to navigate uncertainty while ensuring that they make informed human capital decisions. A significant portion of businesses, accounting for 30% of respondents, took a different route by leaving positions open, a strategic choice to optimize the balance between operational needs and financial prudence.


The economic landscape is ever-shifting, and the interplay of factors such as interest rates and inflation have far-reaching implications for businesses. The Atlanta Federal Reserve's Business Inflation Expectations survey has offered a glimpse into the complex decisions that businesses are making in response to the Federal Reserve's rate hikes. With a discernible impact on capital expenditures and various operational strategies, these interest rate adjustments are proving to be a critical touchpoint that businesses are navigating with care.

As businesses continue to adapt to the evolving economic environment, it becomes clear that the decisions they make today will shape their trajectories for years to come. The delicate balance between borrowing, investing, and growth will remain at the forefront of discussions, as businesses chart their courses through the currents of economic change. The road ahead is marked by strategic decisions that reflect not only the present challenges but also the resilience and adaptability of businesses in the face of uncertainty.
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